MK4MDD

Brain Morphology and Function Report

Basic Information
Name Amygdala
Brain Morphology "Amygdala- part of the telencephalon, located in the temporal lobe. The amygdala is both large and just beneath the surface of the front, medial part of the temporal lobe where it causes the bulge on the surface called the uncus. This is a component of the limbic system. "
Brain Function "Amygdala involved in memory, emotion, and fear. "
Picture Amygdala From Wiki. Magnify
No. of Studies (Positive/Negative) 89(87/2) Help

Positive relationships between Amygdala and MDD (count: 54)
Name in Literature Reference Research Type Statistical Result Relation Description Help
amygdala Siegle, 2007 patients and normal controls Relative to control subjects, depressed subjects displayed s...... Relative to control subjects, depressed subjects displayed sustained amygdala reactivity on the emotional tasks. More...
amygdala Suslow, 2010 patients and normal controls Depressed patients exhibit potentiated amygdala reactivity t...... Depressed patients exhibit potentiated amygdala reactivity to masked negative stimuli along with a reduced responsiveness to masked positive stimuli compared with healthy individuals. More...
amygdala Victor, 2010 patients and normal controls The currently depressed people with MDD showed greater amygd...... The currently depressed people with MDD showed greater amygdala responses than healthy controls to masked sad faces. More...
amygdaloid nuclei Klimek, 2002 patients and normal controls The binding of [(125)I]RTI 55 to DA (dopamine) transporter w...... The binding of [(125)I]RTI 55 to DA (dopamine) transporter was significantly lower in the basal and central amygdaloid nuclei in major depression compared with control subjects. The binding of [(125)I]epidepride to D2 receptors was significantly higher in the basal, central, and lateral amygdaloid nuclei in major depression compared with control subjects. The binding of [(125)I]epidepride to D3 receptors was significantly higher in the basal, central, and lateral amygdaloid nuclei in major depression compared with control subjects. More...
amygdala Thomas, 2001 patients and normal controls depressed children showed a blunted amygdala response to fea...... depressed children showed a blunted amygdala response to fearful faces compared with healthy children More...
amygdala Kimbrell, 2002 patients and normal controls Compared with control subjects, the subgroup of patients wit...... Compared with control subjects, the subgroup of patients with Hamilton depression scores of 22 or greater demonstrated decreased absolute rCMRglu in paralimbic/amygdala regions More...
amygdala Frodl, 2002 patients and normal controls Patients showed increased amygdala volumes in both hemispher...... Patients showed increased amygdala volumes in both hemispheres as compared to healthy control subjects. More...
amygdala Bowley, 2002 patients and normal controls Glial density and the glia/neuron ratio were substantially r...... Glial density and the glia/neuron ratio were substantially reduced in the amygdala in major depressive disorder cases. The reduction was mainly accounted for by counts in the left hemisphere. More...
amygdala Frodl, 2003 patients and normal controls Patients with first-episode depression showed enlarged amygd...... Patients with first-episode depression showed enlarged amygdala volumes compared with patients with recurrent major depression and healthy control subjects. More...
amygdala Saxena, 2003 patients only partial r=0.71 improvement of major depressive disorder symptoms was signif...... improvement of major depressive disorder symptoms was significantly correlated with lower pretreatment (glucose) metabolism in the amygdala (partial r=0.71) More...
amygdala MacMillan, 2003 patients and normal controls left (14%) and right (11%) Pediatric patients with MDD had significantly larger left (1...... Pediatric patients with MDD had significantly larger left (14%) and right (11%) amygdala:hippocampal volume ratios than controls. More...
amygdala Hamidi, 2004 patients and normal controls The density of total glia and oligodendrocytes in the amygda...... The density of total glia and oligodendrocytes in the amygdala was significantly lower in MDD than in control subjects More...
amygdala Lange, 2004 patients and normal controls arger (+13 %) amygdala volumes Compared with control subjects, depressive subjects had sign...... Compared with control subjects, depressive subjects had significantly larger (+13 %) amygdala volumes More...
amygdala Rosso, 2005 patients and normal controls Depressed children had significant reductions of left and ri...... Depressed children had significant reductions of left and right amygdala volumes compared with healthy subjects. More...
amygdala Xia, 2004 patients and normal controls The patients had significant asymmetry of the amygdalar volu...... The patients had significant asymmetry of the amygdalar volumes (right smaller than left). More...
amygdala Surguladze, 2005 patients and normal controls Depressed individuals demonstrated linear increases in respo...... Depressed individuals demonstrated linear increases in response in left putamen, left parahippocampal gyrus/amygdala, and right fusiform gyrus to expressions of increasing sadness. More...
amygdala Giesecke, 2005 patients and normal controls Symptoms of depression and the presence of MDD were associat...... Symptoms of depression and the presence of MDD were associated with the magnitude of pain-evoked neuronal activations in brain regions associated with affective pain processing (the amygdalae and contralateral anterior insula). More...
amygdala Canli, 2005 patients only Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a prospective...... Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a prospective study, we show that greater amygdala activation to emotional facial expressions among depressed patients predicts symptom reduction 8 months later More...
amygdala Parsey, 2006 patients and normal controls Post hoc analysis revealed lower binding potential(serotonin...... Post hoc analysis revealed lower binding potential(serotonin transporter binding potential) in subjects with major depressive disorder, relative to the comparison subjects, in the amygdala More...
amygdala Neumeister, 2006 patients and normal controls The neural responses to sad facial expressions were increase...... The neural responses to sad facial expressions were increased in the amygdala and decreased in the left ventral striatum in rMDD patients relative to healthy control subjects. More...
amygdala Weniger, 2006 patients and normal controls Depressive subjects had significantly enlarged amygdala size...... Depressive subjects had significantly enlarged amygdala size and significantly reduced hippocampal size compared with controls. More...
amygdala Ramel, 2007 patients and normal controls Following sad mood induction, bilateral amygdala response du...... Following sad mood induction, bilateral amygdala response during encoding of valenced words predicted increased recall of negative self-referent words for a subset of remitted depressed participants. This association was not present before the sad mood induction and was not evident in individuals without a history of depression, regardless of mood state. More...
amygdala Neumeister, 2006 patients and normal controls A direct effect of 5-HTTLPR on the regulation of regional ce...... A direct effect of 5-HTTLPR on the regulation of regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose was identified in patients with rMDD for the amygdala, hippocampus, and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex. More...
amygdala Abler, 2007 patients and normal controls Compared to the healthy control group, during expectation of...... Compared to the healthy control group, during expectation of negative vs. neutral or positive stimuli the patients showed significantly more activation within the sublenticular extended dorsal amygdala (SLEA) bilaterally but did not differ from controls upon expecting positive stimuli. More...
amygdala Johnstone, 2007 patients and normal controls Pupil dilation data suggest that those depressed patients wh...... Pupil dilation data suggest that those depressed patients who expend more effort to reappraise negative stimuli are characterized by accentuated activation in the amygdala, whereas nondepressed individuals exhibit the opposite pattern. More...
amygdala Fales, 2008 patients and normal controls Compared with control subjects, patients with depression sho...... Compared with control subjects, patients with depression showed an enhanced amygdala response to unattended fear-related stimuli (relative to unattended neutral). More...
amygdala Monk, 2008 high-risk people and normal controls When attention was unconstrained, high-risk subjects showed ...... When attention was unconstrained, high-risk subjects showed greater amygdala activation to fearful faces. More...
amygdala Dannlowski, 2007 patients only Amygdala hyperactivity is a neural substrate of negatively b...... Amygdala hyperactivity is a neural substrate of negatively biased automatic emotion processing that could be a determinant for a more severe disease course. More...
amygdala Miller, 2008 patients and normal controls Non-remitters had lower 5-HTT binding than controls in midbr...... Non-remitters had lower 5-HTT binding than controls in midbrain, amygdala, and anterior cingulate. More...
amygdala Xiang, 2008 patients and normal controls Levels of D4 mRNA were highest in the basal and central nucl...... Levels of D4 mRNA were highest in the basal and central nuclei. In the basal nucleus, amounts of D4, but not D1 or D2, mRNAs were significantly higher in subjects with major depression as compared to control subjects. More...
amygdalae van Eijndhoven, 2009 patients and normal controls Both amygdalae were significantly enlarged in currently depr...... Both amygdalae were significantly enlarged in currently depressed patients More...
amygdala Hooley, 2009 patients and normal controls Formerly depressed participants responded to criticism with ...... Formerly depressed participants responded to criticism with greater activation in the amygdala than did controls. More...
amygdala Beesdo, 2009 patients and normal controls both MDD and anxiety groups, relative to healthy participant...... both MDD and anxiety groups, relative to healthy participants, exhibited similar signs of amygdala hyperactivation to fearful faces when subjectively experienced fear was rated. More...
amygdala Friedel, 2009 patients and normal controls In healthy controls prefrontal (BA10) activation and BA10-am...... In healthy controls prefrontal (BA10) activation and BA10-amygdala coupling increased with the number of 5-HTT low-expression risk alleles, this effect was abolished, and even reversed, in patients with MDD. More...
amygdala Kronenberg, 2009 patients and normal controls by 13% in left amygdala and 12% in right amygdala Absolute amygdala volumes were significantly reduced in the ...... Absolute amygdala volumes were significantly reduced in the patient group (by 13% in left amygdala and 12% in right amygdala). More...
amygdala Peluso, 2009 patients and normal controls While both depressed and healthy groups showed increased amy...... While both depressed and healthy groups showed increased amygdala activity when viewing emotive faces compared to geometric shapes, patients with unipolar depression showed relatively more activity than healthy subjects, particularly on the left. More...
amygdala Lau, 2010 patients and normal controls F's>4, p's<0.05 Significant effects of diagnosis and diagnosis-by-genotype i...... Significant effects of diagnosis and diagnosis-by-genotype interactions (F's>4, p's<0.05) characterized activations in amygdala and anterior hippocampal regions. Greater activations in patients than healthy adolescents were found. More...
amygdala van Wingen, 2010 patients and normal controls The amygdala was generally involved in memory formation, its...... The amygdala was generally involved in memory formation, its activity predicted subsequent forgetting of neutral faces in depressed patients. The amygdala and posterior cingulate cortex were involved in memory retrieval of happy faces only. More...
amygdala Matthews, 2011 patients and normal controls MDD relative to non-MDD individuals showed greater activity ...... MDD relative to non-MDD individuals showed greater activity during fear matching trials in the amygdala and other emotion processing structures. More...
amygdala Altshuler, 2010 patients and normal controls A reduction in the density of GFAP immunoreactive astrocytes...... A reduction in the density of GFAP immunoreactive astrocytes was observed in the amygdala of subjects with major depressive disorder More...
amygdala van Eijndhoven, 2011 patients and normal controls Both patient groups showed stronger subsequent memory effect...... Both patient groups showed stronger subsequent memory effects in the amygdala when compared to controls More...
amygdala Ritchey, 2011 patients and normal controls Prior to treatment and relative to controls, patients exhibi...... Prior to treatment and relative to controls, patients exhibited diminished discrimination between emotional and neutral items in the amygdala, caudate, and hippocampus. More...
amygdala Cooney, 2010 patients and normal controls Neural activity during rumination versus abstract distractio...... Neural activity during rumination versus abstract distraction was greater for depressed than for control participants in the amygdala, rostral anterior cingulate/medial prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, and parahippocampus. More...
amygdala Erk, 2010 patients and normal controls On the group level, patients were able to downregulate negat...... On the group level, patients were able to downregulate negative emotions and corresponding amygdala activation, but this ability decreased with increasing symptom severity. More...
amygdala Holsen, 2011 patients and normal controls fMRI results showed greater BOLD signal intensity changes in...... fMRI results showed greater BOLD signal intensity changes in controls versus MDD in hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, OFC, ACC, and subgenual ACC, findings unrelated to medication status. More...
amygdala Arnold, 2011 patients and normal controls During successful encoding of positive words, patients exhib...... During successful encoding of positive words, patients exhibited a larger recruitment of a set of areas, comprising cingulate gyrus, right inferior- and left medial-frontal gyrus as well as the right anterior hippocampus/amygdala. More...
amygdala Kessler, 2011 patients and normal controls Relative to control subjects, patients with depression showe...... Relative to control subjects, patients with depression showed increased hemodynamic responses in limbic-paralimbic and subcortical regions (e.g. amygdala and basal ganglia) but no signal decrease in prefrontal regions. More...
amygdala Terroni, 2011 high-risk people Major depressive episode was associated with larger lesions ...... Major depressive episode was associated with larger lesions in areas of the medial prefrontal cortex including the ventral (BA24) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (BA32) and subgenual cortex (BA25); and also the subiculum (BA28/36) and amygdala (BA34). More...
bilateral amygdala Lee, 2011 patients and normal controls Decreased gray matter concentration was found in MDD patient...... Decreased gray matter concentration was found in MDD patients in the bilateral amygdalae, hippocampi, fusiform gyri, lingual gyri, insular gyri, middle-superior temporal gyri, thalami, cingulate gyri, the central lobule of the cerebellum, and the midbrain encompassing the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN) More...
amygdala Derntl, 2011 patients and normal controls We observed significant group differences in amygdala activa...... We observed significant group differences in amygdala activation, with patients showing less response particularly during approach to happy faces. More...
amygdala Jin, 2011 patients and normal controls Our results showed that the topological properties of depres...... Our results showed that the topological properties of depressed adolescents' networks were significantly disrupted compared with HC. Dysregulation of brain regions were found in the amygdala. More...
amygdala Zhong, 2011 patients and normal controls The MDD subjects showed elevated left amygdala responses and...... The MDD subjects showed elevated left amygdala responses and reduced left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) activation levels relative to HC subjects. More...
amygdala Luking, 2011 patients only When compared with CON, we found reduced connectivity betwee...... When compared with CON, we found reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the negative network in children with C-MDD, M-MDD, and CM-MDD. Children with either C-MDD or a maternal history of MDD (but not CM-MDD) displayed reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the positive network. More...
amygdala Hsu, 2012 patients and normal controls Among A-carriers, BOLD signal was smaller in MDD (n = 7) com...... Among A-carriers, BOLD signal was smaller in MDD (n = 7) compared with controls (n = 50) in the hypothalamus, bilateral amygdala, and left nucleus accumbens. More...

Positive relationships between Amygdala and other components at different levels (count: 63) Help
Genetic/epigenetic locus   Protein and other molecule   Cell and molecular pathway   Neural system   Cognition and behavior   Symptoms and signs   Environment
SNP Gene Region Epigenetic site Protein Molecule Pathway Cell Neurobiological system Brain morphology and function Cognition and behavior Symptoms Signs Environment


Positive relationship network of Amygdala in MK4MDD
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Note:
1. The different color of the nodes denotes the level of the nodes.
Genetic/Epigenetic Locus Protein and Other Molecule Cell and Molecular Pathway Neural System Cognition and Behavior Symptoms and Signs Environment MDD
Genetic/Epigenetic Locus Protein and Other Molecule Cell and Molecular Pathway Neural System Cognition and Behavior Symptoms and Signs Environment MDD
2. User can drag the nodes to rearrange the layout of the network. Click the node will enter the report page of the node. Right-click will show also the menus to link to the report page of the node and remove the node and related edges. Hover the node will show the level of the node and hover the edge will show the evidence/description of the edge.
3. The network is generated using Cytoscape Web Cytoscape Web
Negative relationships between Amygdala and MDD (count: 2)
Name in Literature Reference Research Type Statistical Result Relation Description
amygdala Frodl, 2004 patients and normal controls No significant hippocampal and amygdala volume changes were ...... No significant hippocampal and amygdala volume changes were observed in patients or controls between baseline and 1-year follow-up investigations. More...
amygdala Munn, 2007 patients and normal controls No significant differences were found in amygdala volumes be...... No significant differences were found in amygdala volumes between depressed, high-risk, or control subjects. More...

Negative relationships between Amygdala and other components at different levels (count: 1) Help
Genetic/epigenetic locus   Protein and other molecule   Cell and molecular pathway   Neural system   Cognition and behavior   Symptoms and signs   Environment
SNP Gene Region Epigenetic site Protein Molecule Pathway Cell Neurobiological system Brain morphology and function Cognition and behavior Symptoms Signs Environment