MK4MDD

Brain Morphology and Function Report

Basic Information
Name Anterior cingulate cortex
Brain Morphology "The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is the frontal part of the cingulate cortex, that resembles a ""collar"" form around the corpus callosum, the fibrous bundle that relays neural signals between the right and left cerebral hemispheres of the brain. It includes both the ventral and dorsal areas of the cingulate cortex."
Brain Function "Anterior cingulate cortex appears to play a role in a wide variety of autonomic functions, such as regulating blood pressure and heart rate, as well as rational cognitive functions, such as reward anticipation, decision-making, empathy and emotion."
Picture Anterior cingulate cortex From Wiki. Magnify
No. of Studies (Positive/Negative) 72(71/1) Help

Positive relationships between Anterior cingulate cortex and MDD (count: 56)
Name in Literature Reference Research Type Statistical Result Relation Description Help
anterior cingulate Liotti, 2002 patients and normal controls In the remitted group, mood provocation produced a unique ce...... In the remitted group, mood provocation produced a unique cerebral blood flow (rCBF) decrease in pregenual anterior cingulate 24a. More...
anterior cingulate Davidson, 2003 patients and normal controls Patients with greater relative anterior cingulate activation...... Patients with greater relative anterior cingulate activation at baseline in response to the negative versus neutral stimuli showed the most robust treatment response. More...
anterior cingulate Mitterschiffthaler, 2003 patients and normal controls Patients, compared to controls increased activation in anter...... Patients, compared to controls increased activation in anterior cingulate. More...
anterior cingulate Kumari, 2003 patients and normal controls Compared with control participants, patients showed relative...... Compared with control participants, patients showed relatively decreased response in the anterior cingulate (rostral; right) with both negative and positive picture-caption pairs. More...
anterior cingulate cortices (ACC) Anand, 2005 patients and normal controls At rest and during exposure to neutral, positive, and negati...... At rest and during exposure to neutral, positive, and negative pictures cortico-limbic related fluctuations (LFBF) correlations were decreased in depressed patients compared to healthy subjects.The finding of increased activation of limbic regions and decreased LFBF correlations between ACC(anterior cinglulate cortex) and limbic regions is consistent with the hypothesis that decreased cortical regulation of limbic activation in response to negative stimuli may be present in depression. More...
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) Holmes, 2008 patients and normal controls Relative to comparison subjects, patients with MDD displayed...... Relative to comparison subjects, patients with MDD displayed higher current density in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) (Brodmann area 10/32) 80 milliseconds after committing an error. More...
anterior cingulate Knutson, 2008 patients and normal controls Depressed participants exhibit increasing anterior cingulate...... Depressed participants exhibit increasing anterior cingulate activation during anticipation of increasing gains. More...
anterior cingulate Steele, 2007 patients and normal controls Depressed patients did not activate the anterior cingulate t...... Depressed patients did not activate the anterior cingulate to negative feedback. More...
anterior cingulate Auer, 2000 patients and normal controls a possible role of altered glutamatergic neurotransmission w...... a possible role of altered glutamatergic neurotransmission within the anterior cingulate in the pathogenesis of major depression More...
anterior cingulate Rosenberg, 2004 patients and normal controls MDD (18.7% decrease) Anterior cingulate glutamatergic concentrations were signifi...... Anterior cingulate glutamatergic concentrations were significantly reduced in patients with MDD. More...
anterior cingulate Alexopoulos, 2009 patients only Depressed elders (N=27) had lower FA (fractional anisotropy)...... Depressed elders (N=27) had lower FA (fractional anisotropy) than controls (N=27) in several frontolimbic areas, including the dorsal and rostral anterior cingulate, More...
anterior cingulate gyrus Awata, 1998 patients and normal controls (patients with major depressive disorder in late life) compa...... (patients with major depressive disorder in late life) compared with 13 age-matched controls, relative rCBF(regional cerebral blood flow) was significantly decreased bilaterally in the anterior cingulate gyrus More...
anterior cingulate cortex Cotter, 2001 patients and normal controls Glial cell density (22%) (P-value = .004) and neuronal size (23%) (P-value =.01) Glial cell density (22%) (P =.004) and neuronal size (23%) (...... Glial cell density (22%) (P =.004) and neuronal size (23%) (P =.01) were reduced in layer 6 in major depressive disorder compared with controls. More...
anterior cingulate Gron, 2002 patients and normal controls Contrasting patients who had major depressive disorder with ...... Contrasting patients who had major depressive disorder with seniors or patients who had Alzheimer's disease showed bilateral activation of the orbitofrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate. More...
anterior cingulate gyrus Videbech, 2002 patients and normal controls The patients had increased blood flow to anterior cingulate ...... The patients had increased blood flow to anterior cingulate gyrus More...
anterior cingulate cortices (ACC) Drevets, 2002 patients only At baseline, the mean glucose metabolism was decreased in th...... At baseline, the mean glucose metabolism was decreased in the subgenual ACC in the unmedicated depressives relative to controls. More...
anterior cingulate Ballmaier, 2004 patients and normal controls Depressed patients also exhibited significant bilateral whit...... Depressed patients also exhibited significant bilateral white matter volume reductions and significant CSF volume increases in the anterior cingulate and the gyrus rectus. More...
anterior cingulate Mirza, 2004 patients and normal controls Anterior cingulate glutamatergic (Glx) concentrations were s...... Anterior cingulate glutamatergic (Glx) concentrations were significantly lower (19% decrease) in MDD patients versus controls (9.27 +/- 0.43 versus 11.47 +/- 0.26, respectively, p = 0.000). Reduced anterior cingulate Glx in MDD patients was associated with increased severity of functional impairment. More...
anterior cingulate cortex Rosa-Neto, 2004 patients and normal controls P-value <.001 Compared with age- and sex-matched controls, normalized K*(a...... Compared with age- and sex-matched controls, normalized K*(an index of serotonin synthesis) was significantly decreased bilaterally in female patients with MD in the anterior cingulate cortex, in the left anterior cingulate cortex in male patients with MD, and in the left mesial temporal cortex in male and female patients with MD (P<.001 for all). More...
anterior cingulate cortex Holthoff, 2004 patients only There were significant decreases in metabolism upon remissio...... There were significant decreases in metabolism upon remission with respect to the baseline scan in left prefrontal, anterior temporal and anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral thalamus (SPM analysis) and bilateral putamen and cerebellum (SPM and ROI analyses). More...
anterior cingulate cortices Neumeister, 2004 patients and normal controls Compared with sham depletion, TD (tryptophan depletion) was ...... Compared with sham depletion, TD (tryptophan depletion) was associated with an increase in regional cerebral glucose utilization in the anterior cingulate cortices in patients with remitted MDD but not in controls. More...
anterior cingulate cortical regions Oquendo, 2005 patients only Depressed borderline patients also had less relative uptake ...... Depressed borderline patients also had less relative uptake in the anterior cingulate cortex (BA 32) at baseline compared to depressed patients without BPD (borderline personality disorder) and FEN (fenfluramine) abolished this difference. Borderline pathology in the context of a Major Depressive Disorder is associated with altered activity in anterior cingulate cortical regions. More...
anterior cingulate cortex Nofzinger, 2005 patients and normal controls Depressed patients showed larger decreases than healthy subj...... Depressed patients showed larger decreases than healthy subjects in relative metabolism in the anterior cingulate cortex More...
anterior cingulate Perico, 2005 patients and normal controls Our findings confirmed the prediction that separate symptom ...... Our findings confirmed the prediction that separate symptom domains of the MDD syndrome are related to specific rCBF patterns, and extend results from prior studies that suggested the involvement of anterior cingulate, frontal, limbic and basal ganglia regions in the pathophysiology of MDD. More...
anterior cingulate Harvey, 2005 patients and normal controls Within this n-back neural network, depressed patients showed...... Within this n-back neural network, depressed patients showed greater activation of the lateral prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate compared to healthy subjects. More...
anterior cingulate Rosenberg, 2005 patients and normal controls 8.79 SD = 1.68 vs. 11.46 SD = 1.55, respectively, P-value = .0002; 23% decrease Reduced anterior cingulate glutamate was observed in MDD pat...... Reduced anterior cingulate glutamate was observed in MDD patients versus control subjects (8.79 +/- 1.68 vs. 11.46 +/- 1.55, respectively, p = .0002; 23% decrease). More...
anterior cingulate Dunn, 2005 patients and normal controls Unipolars had significantly fewer positive regional correlat...... Unipolars had significantly fewer positive regional correlation coefficients than healthy controls and bipolars. These were significantly different from controls in orbital cortex, anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, and posterior temporal cortex More...
anterior cingulate volumes Caetano, 2006 patients and normal controls The unipolar patients had significantly smaller anterior and...... The unipolar patients had significantly smaller anterior and posterior cingulate volumes bilaterally compared with healthy control subjects. More...
anterior cingulate cortex Matsuo, 2007 patients and normal controls The patients showed significant anterior cingulate cortex ac...... The patients showed significant anterior cingulate cortex activation during the task, but the comparison subjects did not (P<0.01). More...
anterior cingulate Kennedy, 2006 patients and normal controls In this region(anterior cingulate), a significant decrease i...... In this region(anterior cingulate), a significant decrease in mu-opioid receptor BP during sadness was observed in patients with MDD who did not respond to antidepressant treatment. More...
anterior cingulate activation Bremner, 2007 patients and normal controls Patients with untreated depression had a failure of anterior...... Patients with untreated depression had a failure of anterior cingulate activation relative to controls during retrieval of emotional word pairs. More...
anterior cingulate Miller, 2008 patients and normal controls Non-remitters had lower 5-HTT binding than controls in midbr...... Non-remitters had lower 5-HTT binding than controls in midbrain, amygdala, and anterior cingulate. More...
anterior cingulate Dichter, 2009 patients and normal controls During neutral blocks, the control group demonstrated greate...... During neutral blocks, the control group demonstrated greater activation to targets in the midfrontal gyrus and anterior cingulate relative to the MDD group, replicating previous findings of prefrontal hypo-activation in MDD samples to cognitive control stimuli. During sad blocks, the MDD group demonstrated greater activation in a number of prefrontal regions, including the mid-, inferior, and orbito-frontal gyri and the anterior cingulate, suggesting that relatively more prefrontal brain activation was required to disengage from the sad images to respond to the target events. More...
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) Salvadore, 2009 patients and normal controls Patients with MDD showed robust increases in pretreatment AC...... Patients with MDD showed robust increases in pretreatment ACC activity. Notably, this increase was positively correlated with subsequent rapid antidepressant response to ketamine. Pretreatment rostral ACC activation may be a useful biomarker that identifies a subgroup of patients who will respond favorably to ketamine's antidepressant effects. More...
anterior cingulum Frodl, 2008 patients and normal controls Compared with controls, patients showed significantly more d...... Compared with controls, patients showed significantly more decline in gray matter density of the anterior cingulum More...
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) Vasic, 2009 patients and normal controls Temporally anti-correlated network, healthy controls exhibit...... Temporally anti-correlated network, healthy controls exhibited higher connectivity in the ACC, the ventrolateral and the superior prefrontal cortex compared to MDD patients. More...
anterior cingulate cortices Korb, 2008 patients and normal controls MDD subjects showed significantly elevated current density i...... MDD subjects showed significantly elevated current density in delta, theta, alpha, beta1, and beta2 frequency bands relative to controls in anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices. More...
anterior cingulate Strigo, 2008 patients and normal controls Subjects with MDD compared with healthy controls showed (1) ...... Subjects with MDD compared with healthy controls showed (1) increased activation in the dorsal anterior cingulate during anticipation of painful relative to nonpainful stimuli, (2) decreased activation in the rostral anterior cingulate during painful stimulation relative to nonpainful stimulation, More...
anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) Halari, 2009 patients and normal controls In all three tasks, adolescents with depression compared to ...... In all three tasks, adolescents with depression compared to healthy controls demonstrated reduced activation in task-relevant right dorsolateral (DLPFC), inferior prefrontal cortex (IFC) and anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG). More...
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) Hooley, 2009 patients and normal controls Formerly depressed participants responded to criticism with ...... Formerly depressed participants responded to criticism with less activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) than did controls. More...
anterior cingulate cortices (ACC) Yoshimura, 2010 patients and normal controls Compared with the normal controls, the depressed patients sh...... Compared with the normal controls, the depressed patients showed hyperactivity in the MPFC and the rostral ACC during the self-referential processing of negative words. More...
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) Mak, 2009 patients and normal controls The depressed participants showed specific difficulty in reg...... The depressed participants showed specific difficulty in regulating negative emotion, which was associated with reduced GMV and concentration in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the inferior orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Abnormal structures in the ACC and OFC and the dysregulation of negative emotion may relate to the pathology of major depressive disorder. More...
anterior cingulate cortex Selvaraj, 2011 patients and normal controls The depressed patients had lowered 5-HTT binding in several ...... The depressed patients had lowered 5-HTT binding in several brain regions including anterior cingulate cortex More...
anterior cingulate cortices Abe, 2010 patients and normal controls Local areas showing significant gray matter volume reduction...... Local areas showing significant gray matter volume reduction in depressive patients compared with controls were observed in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortices More...
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) Li, 2010 patients and normal controls Compared with normal controls, depressed subjects showed dec...... Compared with normal controls, depressed subjects showed decreased ReHo (Regional Homogeneity) in bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), left medial frontal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus. More...
anterior cingulate gyrus van Tol, 2010 patients and normal controls We demonstrated lower gray matter volumes of the rostral ant...... We demonstrated lower gray matter volumes of the rostral anterior cingulate gyrus extending into the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus in MDD More...
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) Amico, 2011 patients and high-risk people and normal controls Patients with MDD exhibited smaller volumes in the ACC compa...... Patients with MDD exhibited smaller volumes in the ACC compared with healthy controls. More...
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) Salvadore, 2011 patients and normal controls Relative to the rMDD(currently-remitted) group the dMDD(curr...... Relative to the rMDD(currently-remitted) group the dMDD(currently-depressed participants) group showed reduced GM(gray matter) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the precuneus and the inferior parietal lobule. More...
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) Holsen, 2011 patients and normal controls fMRI results showed greater BOLD signal intensity changes in...... fMRI results showed greater BOLD signal intensity changes in controls versus MDD in hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, OFC, ACC, and subgenual ACC, findings unrelated to medication status. More...
anterior cingulate cortex Jin, 2011 patients and normal controls Our results showed that the topological properties of depres...... Our results showed that the topological properties of depressed adolescents' networks were significantly disrupted compared with HC. Dysregulation of brain regions were found in the anterior cingulate cortex. More...
anterior cingulate cortex Levesque, 2011 high-risk people In children whose mothers exhibited higher depressive sympto...... In children whose mothers exhibited higher depressive symptomatology, compared to children whose mothers displayed lower depressive symptomatology, altered neural responses to sad film excerpts were noted in brain regions known to be involved in sadness and MD, notably the insula, anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus, even though the children did not differ in current mood. More...
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) Jarnum, 2011 patients and normal controls A significant decrease in perfusion in the ACC in non-remitt...... A significant decrease in perfusion in the ACC in non-remitters compared with healthy controls at baseline More...
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) Gabbay, 2012 patients and normal controls t = 3.2; P-value < .003 Compared with control subjects, adolescents with MDD had sig...... Compared with control subjects, adolescents with MDD had significantly decreased ACC GABA/w (t = 3.2; P < .003). More...
anterior cingulate gyrus Dichter, 2012 patients and normal controls During the anticipation phase of the task, the rMDD group wa...... During the anticipation phase of the task, the rMDD group was characterized by relatively greater activation in bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus, in right midfrontal gyrus, and in the right cerebellum. More...
anterior cingulate cortex Zhu, 2012 patients and normal controls We observed increased functional connectivity in the anterio...... We observed increased functional connectivity in the anterior medial cortex regions (especially the medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex) in MDD patients compared with control subjects. More...
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) Zhao J, 2012 patients only We found the transcript levels of GABA(A) receptor beta 2 (G...... We found the transcript levels of GABA(A) receptor beta 2 (GABRB2) and post-synaptic density-95 (PSD-95) to be significantly decreased in the ACC in mood disorder. More...

Positive relationships between Anterior cingulate cortex and other components at different levels (count: 33) Help
Genetic/epigenetic locus   Protein and other molecule   Cell and molecular pathway   Neural system   Cognition and behavior   Symptoms and signs   Environment
SNP Gene Region Epigenetic site Protein Molecule Pathway Cell Neurobiological system Brain morphology and function Cognition and behavior Symptoms Signs Environment


Positive relationship network of Anterior cingulate cortex in MK4MDD
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1. The different color of the nodes denotes the level of the nodes.
Genetic/Epigenetic Locus Protein and Other Molecule Cell and Molecular Pathway Neural System Cognition and Behavior Symptoms and Signs Environment MDD
Genetic/Epigenetic Locus Protein and Other Molecule Cell and Molecular Pathway Neural System Cognition and Behavior Symptoms and Signs Environment MDD
2. User can drag the nodes to rearrange the layout of the network. Click the node will enter the report page of the node. Right-click will show also the menus to link to the report page of the node and remove the node and related edges. Hover the node will show the level of the node and hover the edge will show the evidence/description of the edge.
3. The network is generated using Cytoscape Web Cytoscape Web
Negative relationships between Anterior cingulate cortex and MDD (count: 1)
Name in Literature Reference Research Type Statistical Result Relation Description
anterior cingulate Bremner, 2002 patients and normal controls Patients with depression had a statistically significant 32%...... Patients with depression had a statistically significant 32% smaller medial orbitofrontal (gyrus rectus) cortical volume, without smaller volumes of other frontal regions including anterior cingulate Brodmann's area 24 (subgenual gyrus), anterior cingulate Brodmann's area 32, subcallosal gyrus (Brodmann's area 25), or whole brain volume. More...

Negative relationships between Anterior cingulate cortex and other components at different levels (count: 0) Help