MK4MDD

Cognition and Behavior Report

Basic Information
Name Executive functions
Description "The executive system is a theorized cognitive system in psychology that controls and manages other cognitive processes. It is responsible for processes that are sometimes referred to as the executive function, executive functions, supervisory attentional system, or cognitive control. However, executive function and cognitive control are not synonymous with an executive system with the former potentially carried out by specific brain areas or networks (e.g., anterior cingulate cortex and prefrontal cortex in attention, cf. Botvinick et al., 2001; see also Verguts & Notebaert, 2009). The concept is used by psychologists and neuroscientists to describe a loosely defined collection of brain processes that are responsible for planning, cognitive flexibility, abstract thinking, rule acquisition, initiating appropriate actions and inhibiting inappropriate actions, and selecting relevant sensory information."
No. of Studies (Positive/Negative) 28 (28/0) Help

Positive relationships betweenExecutive functions and MDD (count: 22)
Name in Literature Reference Research Type Statistical Result Relation Description Help
impaired executive cognitive function Paelecke-Habermann, 2005 patients and normal controls Euthymic patients with MDD showed deficits in all tests rela...... Euthymic patients with MDD showed deficits in all tests related to executive functions compared to healthy controls. More...
executive function Nebes, 2002 patients and normal controls The individual who became depressed during the followup show...... The individual who became depressed during the followup showed a similar decline on the measures of executive function More...
poorer performance on tests of executive function Baldwin, 2004 patients and normal controls Patients who did not respond to antidepressant monotherapy h...... Patients who did not respond to antidepressant monotherapy had significantly poorer performance than controls on tests involving visuospatial ability, language, word recognition and tests of executive function, whereas there were no differences between control subjects and responders. More...
impaired executive function Lampe, 2004 patients and normal controls Significantly higher levels of apathy, anhedonia and psychom...... Significantly higher levels of apathy, anhedonia and psychomotor retardation, and worse performance on tests of executive function were found in the patient group compared with the healthy controls. More...
executive function O'Brien, 2004 patients and normal controls Depressed subjects showed multiple impairments in attention,...... Depressed subjects showed multiple impairments in attention, working memory, visual memory, verbal memory, new learning, and executive function in relation to comparison subjects. More...
executive function Rapoport, 2005 patients only Subjects with major depression, compared to those without, w...... Subjects with major depression, compared to those without, were found to have significantly lower scores on measures of executive function. More...
executive function Rapp, 2005 patients only Patients with late-onset major depressive disorder showed sp...... Patients with late-onset major depressive disorder showed specific deficits in executive function More...
impairment of central executive function Rose, 2006 patients and normal controls These observations support a relatively specific impairment ...... These observations support a relatively specific impairment of working memory/central executive function in MDD, which may potentially mediate the diverse pattern of cognitive dysfunction noted in MDD. More...
executive dysfunctions Frodl, 2006 patients and normal controls lower hippocampal volumes were correlated with poorer perfor...... lower hippocampal volumes were correlated with poorer performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The present findings emphasize that patients with reduced hippocampal volumes show more executive dysfunctions than their counterparts. More...
executive function Baudic, 2007 patients and normal controls Unipolar depressed patients showed deficits in most tasks as...... Unipolar depressed patients showed deficits in most tasks assessing executive function. In depressed patients, deficits were found on tasks assessing cognitive flexibility (Modified card sorting test (MCST) and Trail making test B), planification and elaboration of strategies (cognitive estimates), motor initiation (graphic sequences), categorisation and hypothesis making (MCST) and interference resistance (Stroop test). More...
executive dysfunction Mantella, 2007 patients and normal controls Depressed subjects also performed worse than normal comparis...... Depressed subjects also performed worse than normal comparison subjects on delayed memory, as well as in naming. Depressed patients compared to normal comparison subjects showed executive dysfunction. More...
impaired executive function Michopoulos, 2008 patients and normal controls The MDD patients performed worse than controls on PAL(paired...... The MDD patients performed worse than controls on PAL(paired associative learning) and both executive tasks. MDD patients showed neuropsychological deficits on tasks of executive function and memory, supporting the model of frontal-temporal dysfunction. More...
impaired on tasks of executive function Sarosi, 2007 patients and normal controls Patients with depression relative to controls were significa...... Patients with depression relative to controls were significantly impaired on tasks of executive function. More...
executive functions Reppermund, 2009 patients and normal controls In acute depression, we found impairments of information pro...... In acute depression, we found impairments of information processing/attention, memory, and executive functions. Cognitive impairments remained in a high proportion of patients, even after remission of psychopathological symptoms. More...
indecisiveness Mitchell, 2009 patients only The prevalence of depression in our sample was 54.4%. In thi...... The prevalence of depression in our sample was 54.4%. In this high prevalence setting the optimum specific symptoms for ruling in MDD were psychomotor retardation, diminished interest/pleasure and indecisiveness. More...
impaired executive attention Hasler, 2009 patients and normal controls In an additional examination using the affective Stroop task...... In an additional examination using the affective Stroop task we found evidence for impaired executive attention as a trait abnormality in MDD. More...
executive functions Kaymak, 2010 patients and normal controls Patients were found to have significantly lower scores on me...... Patients were found to have significantly lower scores on measures of attention, working memory, psychomotor speed, executive functions, and visual and verbal memory fields. More...
impaired executive function Hammar, 2010 patients and normal controls The patients were impaired compared with the control group o...... The patients were impaired compared with the control group on the Color-Word card task at both test occasions. Thus, the depressed patients showed no improvement of effortful attention/executive performance as a function of symptom reduction. More...
executive function Kohler, 2010 patients and normal controls Compared with healthy controls, participants with depression...... Compared with healthy controls, participants with depression scoring within the third tertile of white matter hyperintensities dropped two and three standard deviations in executive function and memory scores respectively. More...
impaired executive function Maalouf, 2010 patients and normal controls P-value = 0.045; P-value = 0.046 unipolar depression showed impaired executive function (p=0....... unipolar depression showed impaired executive function (p=0.045 and p=0.046, respectively). More...
execution van Tol, 2011 patients and normal controls Moderately/severely depressed patients with MDD showed incre...... Moderately/severely depressed patients with MDD showed increased left dorsolateral prefrontal activity as a function of task load, together with subtle slowing during task execution. More...
impaired executive function Maalouf, 2011 patients and normal controls P-value = 0.01, d=0.94; P-value = 0.015, d=0.77 MDD in acute episode (MDDa) showed impaired executive functi...... MDD in acute episode (MDDa) showed impaired executive function, as measured by using more moves to solve 4-move problems on a forward planning task, relative to depressed adolescents in remission (MDDr) and HC (p=0.01, d=0.94 and p=0.015, d=0.77 respectively). More...

Positive relationships between Executive functions and other level components at different levels (count: 13) Help
Genetic/epigenetic locus   Protein and other molecule   Cell and molecular pathway   Neural system   Cognition and behavior   Symptoms and signs   Environment
SNP Gene Region Epigenetic site Protein Molecule Pathway Cell Neurobiological system Brain morphology and function Cognition and behavior Symptoms Signs Environment


Positive relationship network of Executive functions in MK4MDD
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Note:
1. The different color of the nodes denotes the level of the nodes.
Genetic/Epigenetic Locus Protein and Other Molecule Cell and Molecular Pathway Neural System Cognition and Behavior Symptoms and Signs Environment MDD
Genetic/Epigenetic Locus Protein and Other Molecule Cell and Molecular Pathway Neural System Cognition and Behavior Symptoms and Signs Environment MDD
2. User can drag the nodes to rearrange the layout of the network. Click the node will enter the report page of the node. Right-click will show also the menus to link to the report page of the node and remove the node and related edges. Hover the node will show the level of the node and hover the edge will show the evidence/description of the edge.
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Negative relationships betweenExecutive functions and MDD (count: 0)
Negative relationships between Executive functions and other level components at different levels (count: 0) Help