MK4MDD

Brain Morphology and Function Report

Basic Information
Name Reward system
Brain Morphology "In neuroscience, the reward system is a collection of brain structures which attempts to regulate and control behavior by inducing pleasurable effects. The neurological reward system is part of what makes reinforcement possible. The major neurochemical pathway of the reward system in the brain involves the mesolimbic and mesocortical pathway. Of these pathways, the mesolimbic pathway plays the major role, and goes from the ventral tegmental area via the medial forebrain bundle to nucleus accumbens, which is the primary release site for the neurotransmitter dopamine. Dopamine acts on D1 or D2 receptors to either stimulate (D1) or inhibit (D2) the production of cAMP."
Brain Function "A psychological reward is a process that reinforces behavior- something that, when offered, causes a behavior to increase in intensity. Reward is an operational concept for describing the positive value an individual ascribes to an object, behavioral act or an internal physical state. Natural rewards include those that are necessary for the survival of species, such as eating, drinking, sex, and fighting. Secondary rewards derive their value from the primary reward, and include shelter, money, pleasant touch, beauty, music, etc. The functions of rewards are based directly on the modification of behavior and indirectly on the sensory properties of rewards. For instance, altruism may induce a larger psychological reward, although it doesn't cause sensations. Rewards are generally considered more effective than punishment in enforcing positive behavior. Rewards induce learning, approach behavior and feelings of positive emotions."
No. of Studies (Positive/Negative) 10(10/0) Help

Positive relationships between Reward system and MDD (count: 6)
Name in Literature Reference Research Type Statistical Result Relation Description Help
brain reward system Schlaepfer, 2008 patients only Dysfunctions of the reward system--in which the nucleus accu...... Dysfunctions of the reward system--in which the nucleus accumbens is a key structure--are implicated in the neurobiology of major depression. More...
brain reward system Epstein, 2006 patients and normal controls This finding supports a pathophysiological model of depressi...... This finding supports a pathophysiological model of depression that includes reward/motivational pathway dysfunction. More...
brain reward system Smoski, 2009 patients and normal controls hyporesponsivity of reward systems in MDD hyporesponsivity of reward systems in MDD
prefrontal cortex (PFC) Drevets, 2002 patients only At baseline, the mean glucose metabolism was decreased in th...... At baseline, the mean glucose metabolism was decreased in the dorsal medial/dorsal anterolateral PFC in the unmedicated depressives relative to controls. More...
brain reward system Forbes, 2006 patients and normal controls Participants with MDD exhibited less neural response than co...... Participants with MDD exhibited less neural response than control participants in reward-related brain areas during both phases of the task. More...
reward network Smoski, 2011 patients and normal controls Results suggest reduced reward network activation in MDD whe...... Results suggest reduced reward network activation in MDD when anticipating rewards. More...

Positive relationships between Reward system and other components at different levels (count: 9) Help
Genetic/epigenetic locus   Protein and other molecule   Cell and molecular pathway   Neural system   Cognition and behavior   Symptoms and signs   Environment
SNP Gene Region Epigenetic site Protein Molecule Pathway Cell Neurobiological system Brain morphology and function Cognition and behavior Symptoms Signs Environment


Positive relationship network of Reward system in MK4MDD
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Note:
1. The different color of the nodes denotes the level of the nodes.
Genetic/Epigenetic Locus Protein and Other Molecule Cell and Molecular Pathway Neural System Cognition and Behavior Symptoms and Signs Environment MDD
Genetic/Epigenetic Locus Protein and Other Molecule Cell and Molecular Pathway Neural System Cognition and Behavior Symptoms and Signs Environment MDD
2. User can drag the nodes to rearrange the layout of the network. Click the node will enter the report page of the node. Right-click will show also the menus to link to the report page of the node and remove the node and related edges. Hover the node will show the level of the node and hover the edge will show the evidence/description of the edge.
3. The network is generated using Cytoscape Web Cytoscape Web
Negative relationships between Reward system and MDD (count: 0)
Negative relationships between Reward system and other components at different levels (count: 0) Help
Reward system involved components (count: 11)
Name Type  
Nucleus accumbens brain morphology and function
Caudate nucleus brain morphology and function
Putamen brain morphology and function
Thalamus brain morphology and function
Orbitofrontal cortex brain morphology and function
Insula brain morphology and function
Anterior cingulate cortex brain morphology and function
Posterior cingulate cortex brain morphology and function
Inferior parietal lobule brain morphology and function
Prefrontal cortex brain morphology and function
Reward system brain morphology and function