MK4MDD

Pathway Report

Basic Information
Name Melanoma
KEGG Link ID: hsa05218
Name: melanoma
Brief Description: Melanoma
Full Description: Five distinct stages have been proposed in the evolution of melanoma on the basis of histological criteria: common acquired and congenital nevi without dysplastic changes; dysplastic nevi with structural and architectural atypia; radial-growth phase (RGP) melanoma; vertical-growth phase (VGP) melanoma; and metastatic melanoma. Oncogenic NRAS mutations activate both effector pathways Raf-MEK-ERK and PI3K-Akt. The Raf-MEK-ERK pathway may also be activated via mutations in the BRAF gene. The PI3K-Akt pathway may be activated through loss or mutation of the inhibitory tumor suppressor gene PTEN. These mutations arise early during melanoma pathogenesis and are preserved throughout tumor progression. Moreover, melanoma development is strongly associated with inactivation of the p16INK4a/CDK4,6/pRb and p14ARF/HMD2/p53 tumor suppressor pathways. The vertical-growth phase and metastatic melanoma are notable for striking changes in the control of cell adhesion. Recently, amplification of the MITF gene was demonstrated in 10% of primary melanomas and 20% of metastatic melanomas, suggesting that MITF is a melanoma oncogene.
Description "Melanoma is a form of skin cancer that has a poor prognosis and which is on the rise in Western populations.  Melanoma arises from the malignant transformation of pigment-producing cells, melanocytes. The only known environmental risk factor is exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light and in people with fair skin the risk is greatly increased. Melanoma pathogenesis is also driven by genetic factors. Oncogenic NRAS mutations activate both effector pathways Raf-MEK-ERK and PI3K-Akt. The Raf-MEK-ERK pathway may also be activated via mutations in the BRAF gene. The PI3K-Akt pathway may be activated through loss or mutation of the inhibitory tumor suppressor gene PTEN. These mutations arise early during melanoma pathogenesis and are preserved throughout tumor progression. Melanoma development has been shown to be strongly associated with inactivation of the p16INK4a/cyclin dependent kinases 4 and 6/retinoblastoma protein (p16INK4a/CDK4,6/pRb) and p14ARF/human double minute 2/p53 (p14ARF/HMD2/p53) tumor suppressor pathways. MITF and TP53 are implicated in further melanoma progression."
No. of Studies (Positive/Negative) 1 (1/0) Help

Positive relationship between Melanoma and MDD (count: 1)
Name in Literature Reference Research Type Statistical Result Relation Description Help
Melanoma Network and C, 2015 patients only FDR q-value=0.07130141 The degree of rank correlation between pathways across pairs...... The degree of rank correlation between pathways across pairs of disorders was significant (Supplementary Tables 4 and 6), with 49 pathways with combined q-value <0.1 spanning the three adult disorders (Table 2, Supplementary Table 7). Of these, 16 are significant at q < 0.05, with the top pathway (GO:51568: histone H3-K4 methylation) having a q = 0.0003 (Table 2). These results are more significant than those observed in any of the disorders analyzed alone. We then use multidimensional scaling (MDS) to cluster these sets in terms of shared genes. More...

Positive relationships between Melanoma and other components at different levels (count: 0) Help
Positive relationship network of Melanoma in MK4MDD
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Note:
1. The different color of the nodes denotes the level of the nodes.
Genetic/Epigenetic Locus Protein and Other Molecule Cell and Molecular Pathway Neural System Cognition and Behavior Symptoms and Signs Environment MDD
Genetic/Epigenetic Locus Protein and Other Molecule Cell and Molecular Pathway Neural System Cognition and Behavior Symptoms and Signs Environment MDD
2. User can drag the nodes to rearrange the layout of the network. Click the node will enter the report page of the node. Right-click will show also the menus to link to the report page of the node and remove the node and related edges. Hover the node will show the level of the node and hover the edge will show the evidence/description of the edge.
3. The network is generated using Cytoscape Web Cytoscape Web
Negative relationships between Melanoma and MDD (count: 0)
Negative relationships between Melanoma and other components at different levels (count: 0) Help
Pathway Melanoma related genes in MK4MDD (count: 13)