"In neuroanatomy, habenula originally denoted the stalk of the pineal gland (pineal habenula; pedunculus of pineal body), but gradually came to refer to a neighboring group of nerve cells with which the pineal gland was believed to be associated, the habenular nucleus. The habenular nucleus is a set of well conserved structures in all vertebrate animals. Currently, the Terminologia Anatomica term refers exclusively to this separate cell mass in the caudal and dorsal aspect of the dorsal thalamus (the epithalamus), embedded in the posterior end of the medullary stria from which it receives most of its afferent fibers. By way of the retroflex fasciculus (habenulointerpeduncular tract) it projects to the interpeduncular nucleus and other paramedian cell groups of the midbrain tegmentum."
"The habenular nuclei have been shown to be involved in many functions, including pain processing, reproductive behavior, nutrition, sleep-wake cycles, stress responses, and learning. Recent demonstrations using fMRI and single unit electrophysiology have closely linked the function of the lateral habenula with reward processing, in particular with regard to encoding negative feedback or negative rewards. Matsumoto and Hikosaka suggested in 2007 that this reward and reward-negative information in the brain might ""be elaborated through the interplay among the lateral habenula, the basal ganglia, and monoaminergic (dopaminergic and serotonergic) systems"" and that the lateral habenula may play a pivotal role in this ""integrative function"". Both the medial and lateral habenula show reduced volume in those with depression. Neuron cell numbers were also reduced on the right side. Such changes not seen in those with schizophrenia. Deep brain stimulation of the major afferent bundle (i.e., stria medullaris thalami) of the lateral hebenuala has been used for treatment of depression where it is severe, protracted and therapy-resistant."
No. of Studies (Positive/Negative)
Positive relationships between Habenula and MDD (count: 2)
Following ATD (acute tryptophan depletion), habenula blood f......
Following ATD (acute tryptophan depletion), habenula blood flow increased significantly in the rMDD subjects relative to the control subjects.More...
In post hoc assessments analyzing men and women separately, ......
In post hoc assessments analyzing men and women separately, the currently-depressed women with MDD had smaller absolute (p < .05) habenula volumes than the HC (healthy control subjects) women.More...
Positive relationships between Habenula and other components at different levels (count: 3)
Protein and other molecule
Cell and molecular pathway
Cognition and behavior
Symptoms and signs
Positive relationship network of Habenula in MK4MDD
Network loading ...
1. The different color of the nodes denotes the level of the nodes.
Protein and Other Molecule
Cell and Molecular Pathway
Cognition and Behavior
Symptoms and Signs
2. User can drag the nodes to rearrange the layout of the network. Click the node will enter the report page of the node.
Right-click will show also the menus to link to the report page of the node and remove the node and related edges.
Hover the node will show the level of the node and hover the edge will show the evidence/description of the edge.
3. The network is generated using Cytoscape Web
Negative relationships between Habenula and MDD (count: 0)
Negative relationships between Habenula and other components at different levels (count: 0)
Copyright: Bioinformatics Lab, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Feedback
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Last update: October 10, 2015